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Arsenicosis, caused by arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies, is a major public health problem in India and Bangladesh. Chronic liver disease, often with portal hypertension occurs in chronic arsenicosis, contributes to the morbidity and mortality. The early cellular events that initiate liver cell injury due to arsenicosis have not been studied. Our aim was to identify the possible mechanisms related to arsenic-induced liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced in mice by arsenic treatment. The liver was used for mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Evidence of apoptosis was sought by TUNEL test, caspase assay and histology.more » Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was done to modulate hepatic GSH level. Arsenic treatment in mice caused liver injury associated with increased oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and alteration of MPT. Altered MPT facilitated cytochrome c release in the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to arsenic-treated mice abrogated all these alteration suggesting a glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanism. Oxidative stress in mitochondria and inappropriate MPT are important in the pathogenesis of arsenic induced apoptotic liver cell injury. The phenomenon is GSH dependent and supplementation of NAC might have beneficial effects.« less
The instigation and persistence of an inflammatory response is widely considered to be critically important in quartz-induced lung cancer and fibrosis. Macrophages have been long recognised as a crucial player in pulmonary inflammation, but evidence for the role of type II epithelial cells is accumulating. Investigations were performed in the rat lung type II cell line RLE and the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 using Western blotting, NF-κB immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR of the pro-inflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2, as well as the cellular stress gene HO-1. The direct effect of quartz on pro-inflammatory signalling cascades and gene expression in RLE cells was compared to the effect of conditioned media derived from quartz-treated NR8383 cells. Conditioned media activated the NF-κB signalling pathway and induced a far stronger upregulation of iNOS mRNA than quartz itself. Quartz elicited a stronger, progressive induction of COX-2 and HO-1 mRNA. Our results suggest a differentially mediated inflammatory response, in which reactive particles themselves induce oxidative stress and activation of COX-2, while mediators released from particle-activated macrophages trigger NF-κB activation and iNOS expression in type II cells.
Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease associated with inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage. Although inhibition of TNFα is widely used to treat RA, a significant number of patients do not respond to TNFα blockade, and therefore there is a compelling need to continue to identify alternative therapeutic strategies for treating chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA. The anti-epidermal growth factor (anti-EGF) receptor antibody trastuzumab has revolutionised the treatment of patients with EGF receptor-positive breast cancer. Expression of EGF ligands and receptors (known as HER) has also been documented in RA. The highly unique compound RB200 is a bispecific ligand trap that is composed of full-length extracellular domains of HER1 and HER3 EGF receptors. Because of its pan-HER specificity, RB200 inhibits responses mediated by HER1, HER2 and HER3 in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of RB200 combined with TNF blockade in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. Methods Arthritic mice were treated with RB200 alone or in combination with the TNF receptor fusion protein etanercept. We performed immunohistochemistry to assess CD31 and in vivo fluorescent imaging using anti-E-selectin antibody labelled with fluorescent dye to elucidate the effect of RB200 on the vasculature in CIA. Results RB200 significantly abrogated CIA by reducing paw swelling and clinical scores. Importantly, low-dose RB200 combined with a suboptimal dose of etanercept led to complete abrogation of arthritis. Moreover, the combination of RB200 with etanercept abrogated the intensity of the E-selectin-targeted signal to the level seen in control animals not immunised to CIA. Conclusions The human pan-EGF receptor bispecific ligand trap RB200, when combined with low-dose etanercept, abrogates CIA, suggesting that inhibition of events downstream of EGF receptor activation, in combination with TNFα inhibitors, may
Lamellar body (LB) secretion and terminal differentiation of stratum granulosum (SG) cells are signaled by both protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and caveolin-1 (cav-1). To address the early dynamics of LB secretion, we examined cytoskeletal remodeling of keratinocytes in 3 mouse models following acute barrier abrogation: hairless mice, PAR-2 knockout (-/-) and cav-1 -/-. Under basal conditions, globular (G)-actin accumulates in SG cells cytosol, while filamentous (F)-actin is restricted to peri-membrane domains. Barrier abrogation induces the apical movement of F-actin and the retreat of the SG-G-actin front, paralleled by upstream cytoskeletal kinases activation. This phenomenon was both enhanced by PAR-2 agonist, and inhibited by cytochalasin-D and in PAR-2 knockout mice. We found that plasma membrane conformational changes causing LB secretion are controlled by PAR-2-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. We next addressed the interaction dynamics between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane following PAR-2-induced actin stress fiber formation in both cav-1 -/- and wildtype cells. Actin stress fiber formation is increased in cav-1 -/- cells prior to and following PAR-2 agonist peptide-treatment, while absence of cav-1 inhibits E-cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion. PAR-2 drives cytoskeletal/plasma membrane dynamics that regulate early LB secretion following barrier abrogation, stress fiber formation and keratinocyte adhesion. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may offer novel approaches in the treatment of asthma. We postulate that trichostatin A (TSA), a Class 1 and 2 inhibitor of HDAC, inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in antigen-challenged mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus antigen (AF) and treated with TSA, dexamethasone, or vehicle. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance were measured, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for numbers of leukocytes and concentrations of cytokines. Human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were treated with TSA and their agonist-induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and TSA-treated human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells were evaluated for the agonist-induced activation of Rho and intracellular release of Ca2+. The activity of HDAC in murine lungs was enhanced by antigen and abrogated by TSA. TSA also inhibited methacholine (Mch)-induced increases in RL and decreases in dynamic compliance in naive control mice and in AF-sensitized and -challenged mice. Total cell counts, concentrations of IL-4, and numbers of eosinophils in BALF were unchanged in mice treated with TSA or vehicle, whereas dexamethasone inhibited the numbers of eosinophils in BALF and concentrations of IL-4. TSA inhibited the carbachol-induced contraction of PCLS. Treatment with TSA inhibited the intracellular release of Ca2+ in ASM cells in response to histamine, without affecting the activation of Rho. The inhibition of HDAC abrogates airway hyperresponsiveness to Mch in both naive and antigen-challenged mice. TSA inhibits the agonist-induced contraction of PCLS and mobilization of Ca2+ in ASM cells. Thus, HDAC inhibitors demonstrate a mechanism of action distinct from that of anti-inflammatory agents such as steroids, and represent a promising therapeutic agent for airway disease. PMID:22298527
Obesity greatly influences risk, progression and prognosis of breast cancer. As molecular effects of obesity are largely mediated by adipocytokine leptin, finding effective novel strategies to antagonize neoplastic effects of leptin is desirable to disrupt obesity-cancer axis. Present study is designed to test the efficacy of honokiol (HNK), a bioactive polyphenol from Magnolia grandiflora, against oncogenic actions of leptin and systematically elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our results show that HNK significantly inhibits leptin-induced breast-cancer cell-growth, invasion, migration and leptin-induced breast-tumor-xenograft growth. Using a phospho-kinase screening array, we discover that HNK inhibits phosphorylation and activation of key molecules of leptin-signaling-network. Specifically, HNK inhibits leptin-induced Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo. Finally, an integral role of miR-34a in HNK-mediated inhibition of Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin axis was discovered. HNK inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation, abrogates its recruitment to miR-34a promoter and this release of repressor-Stat3 results in miR-34a activation leading to Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin inhibition. Accordingly, HNK treatment inhibited breast tumor growth in diet-induced-obese mouse model (exhibiting high leptin levels) in a manner associated with activation of miR-34a and inhibition of MTA1-β-catenin. These data provide first in vitro and in vivo evidence for the leptin-antagonist potential of HNK revealing a crosstalk between HNK and miR34a and Wnt1-MTA1-β-catenin axis. PMID:26036628
Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs used in the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors. Its primary dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5mg/kg) deteriorated the kidney functions as reflected by elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was evident in cisplatin group by increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, reduced renal total antioxidant status and increased renal nitrite concentration. Cisplatin resulted in a decline in the concentrations of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in renal tissues. Renal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also elevated. Expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and caspase-3 were up-regulated in renal tissues as indicated by immunohistochemical analysis. Histopathological changes were observed in cisplatin group. Betaine supplementation (250 mg/kg/day) orally via gavage for 21 days prior to cisplatin injection was able to protect against deterioration in kidney function, abrogate the decline in antioxidants enzymes and suppressed the increase in TBARS, nitrite and TNF-α concentrations. Moreover, betaine inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation and improved the histological changes induced by cisplatin. Thus, the present study demonstrated the renoprotective nature of betaine by attenuating the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators and improving antioxidant competence in kidney tissues of cisplatin treated rats. Betaine could be a beneficial dietary supplement to attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. 2b1af7f3a8