Most roads have permanent markings to show the center of the road, travel lanes, or road edges. The markings that show the center of the road are solid or broken lines. These pavement markings also indicate special lane use. Yellow lines divide traffic traveling in opposite directions. Yellow lines are used to mark the center of two-lane roads, and to mark the left edge of divided highways, one-way streets, and ramps. Solid white lines divide lanes of traffic traveling in the same direction. Solid white lines are also used to mark the right edge of the road.
This pattern is used on most limited access highways with medians (center dividers). The right edge of the road is marked with a solid white line. The left edge of each side is marked by a solid yellow line. The traffic lanes for each side are marked by broken white lines, which may be crossed.
Pavement markings are used to convey messages to roadway users. They indicate which part of the road to use, provide information about conditions ahead, and indicate where passing is allowed. Yellow lines separate traffic flowing in opposite directions. Drivers should stay to the right of yellow lines. A solid yellow line indicates that passing is prohibited. A dashed yellow line indicates that passing is allowed. White lines separate lanes for which travel is in the same direction. A double white line indicates that lane changes are prohibited. A single white line indicates that lane changes are discouraged. A dashed white line indicates that lane changes are allowed.
A permit is required for anyone in the business of solid waste collection or recyclable materials collection, removal or transport for hire or salvage over the streets or public right-of-way in Miami-Dade County. Permitted private haulers can learn more about the Disposal Facility Fee Area and Disposal Facility Fee requirements here.
Posts and footings support the weight of your house, so you have to size them right. Load-bearing posts must have a solid footing on undisturbed soil, and all parts of the post must be fastened together. Consult with a structural engineer, local building officials and contractors who specialize in this work. Hire the professionals to review all aspects of your project and provide the calculations and drawings necessary to obtain a building permit (Fig. A, shown above). Interview those who do residential work and have experience with this type of project. You can expect them to:
Landfills must have a solid waste permit prior to construction. Permits are reviewed and issued by DEQ for the life of the landfill, until the facility is released from postclosure care. Facility owners or operators must apply for permit modifications as needed to update for facility design, operation, environmental monitoring, closure or postclosure care changes.
DLRP issues emergency authorizations (or emergency permits) when immediate action is needed to undertake work that will protect public health, safety, welfare and the environment. In certain cases, DLRP may determine the time needed to issue a permit using conventional methods may result in an unsafe condition that can harm the environment or threaten people or property. In such cases, individuals can seek an emergency authorization. Most recovery and repair activities public agencies, businesses, and homeowners need to conduct as a result of damage inflicted by an extreme weather event can be accomplished through receipt of an emergency authorization. Please be advised, some construction activities along the coast and in flood hazard areas may not qualify for an emergency authorization and instead will require receipt of a DLRP permit prior to construction.
Left turn: left hand and arm extended horizontally beyond the side of the bicycle. Right Turn: left hand and arm extended upward beyond the side of the bicycle, or right hand and arm extended horizontally to the right side of the bicycle. Stop or decrease speed: Left hand and arm extended downward beyond the side of the bicycle. Such hand signals shall be given continuously during the last one hundred feet traveled by the bicycle before initiation of a turn, unless during the last one hundred feet both hands are needed to control or operate the bicycle.
Almost all countries in North and South America have solid and intermittent yellow lines separating traffic directions. However, Chile and Argentina have intermittent white lines separating traffic when overtaking is permitted from both directions, and solid yellow lines when overtaking is prohibited from both directions; when overtaking is permitted from only one direction, such countries separate traffic with a combination of white and yellow lines.
Yellow lines are used to separate traffic moving in opposite directions, and white lines are used to separate traffic moving in the same direction, and on the shoulders of paved roads. On one-directional roads, a yellow line appears on the left shoulder, and a white line on the right shoulder. Passing rules are denoted by dashed lines as in the United States. In Ontario, it is legal to cross a single or double solid yellow line along a straight road and the vehicle is not within 30 meters of a bridge or railway crossing.
In general, white lines separate traffic in the same direction, single broken lines mean passing or lane changing is allowed, single solid white lines mean lane changing is discouraged or prohibited, and double solid white lines mean it is prohibited, as it often is in tunnels. On two-lane roads, a single broken center line means that passing is allowed in either direction, a double solid center line means passing is prohibited in both directions, and the combination of a solid line with a broken line means that passing is allowed only from the side with the broken line and prohibited from the side with the solid line. Lanes with double broken yellow lines on each side are reversible, and lane control signals are used to indicate which direction traffic in such lanes is supposed to travel. The solid white line on the right side is called the 'fog line' used to help cars stay in their lane during foggy conditions and help pedestrians stay off the road.
In Russia, yellow lines may be used instead of white lines to separate oncoming traffic flows. They were authorized only recently, in 2018, and were first painted on a short stretch of federal highway A138 in Murmansk Oblast. Broken yellow lines at the edge of the road mean that you cannot park, but can stop for up to 5 minutes, or more if that is needed to load and unload people or cargo. A solid yellow line on the edge of the road denotes that stopping is prohibited.
In Australia, road markings are typically in line with Germany and Switzerland. White lines are generally used both to separate traffic flowing in the same direction and traffic flowing in opposite directions. Double solid white centre lines may not be crossed under any circumstances unless avoiding an obstruction except in New South Wales where double lines may cross to enter or leave the roadway. Dashed lines may be crossed for overtaking, changing lanes or turning, and also in the case of double-line markings provided the dashed line is on your side of the markings. For this reason, dashed lines are usually used to mark multiple lanes travelling in one direction. Single yellow lines along road edges are used nationally to indicate "No Standing" areas not otherwise marked by signs. Solid white lines are also used to indicate kerbside parking, pedestrian and bicycle lanes, and other kerbside features. In cities with tramway networks, double yellow lines separate the tramway from the road. Yellow line markings are also used in areas that receive regular annual snowfall to provide contrast. Double-line markings are used to separate traffic flowing in opposite directions on busy roads.
Introduction to Physical Security Commonly Asked Questions Policy Issues Physical Security Countermeasures Physical Security Checklist Introduction to Physical SecurityMost people think about locks, bars, alarms, and uniformed guards whenthey think about security. While these countermeasures are by nomeans the only precautions that need to be considered when trying tosecure an information system, they are a perfectly logical place to begin.Physical security is a vital part of any security plan and is fundamental to allsecurity efforts--without it, information security (Chapter 6), softwaresecurity (Chapter 7), user access security (Chapter 8), and networksecurity (Chapter 9) are considerably more difficult, if not impossible, toinitiate. Physical security refers to the protection of building sites andequipment (and all information and software contained therein) fromtheft, vandalism, natural disaster, manmade catastrophes, and accidentaldamage (e.g., from electrical surges, extreme temperatures, and spilledcoffee). It requires solid building construction, suitable emergencypreparedness, reliable power supplies, adequate climate control, and appropriate protection from intruders. Commonly Asked QuestionsQ.How can I implement adequate site security when I am stuck in anold and decrepit facility?A.Securing your site is usually the result of a series of compromises--what you need versus what you can afford and implement. Ideally, oldand unusable buildings are replaced by modern and more serviceablefacilities, but that is not always the case in the real world. If you findyourself in this situation, use the risk assessment process described inChapter 2 to identify your vulnerabilities and become aware of your preferred security solutions. Implement those solutions that you can, withthe understanding that any steps you take make your system that muchmore secure than it had been. When it comes time to argue for newfacilities, documenting those vulnerabilities that were not addressed earliershould contribute to your evidence of need.Q.Even if we wanted to implement these physical security guidelines,how would we go about doing so?A.Deciding which recommendations to adopt is the most important step.Your risk assessment results should arm you with the informationrequired to make sound decisions. Your findings might even show that notevery guideline is required to meet the specific needs of your site (andthere will certainly be some variation based on need priorities). Oncedecided on, however, actually initiating a strategy is often as simple asraising staff awareness and insisting on adherence to regulations. Somestrategies might require basic "'handyman"' skills to install simple equipment(e.g., key locks, fire extinguishers, and surge protectors), while othersdefinitely demand the services of consultants or contractors with specialexpertise (e.g., window bars, automatic fire equipment, and alarmsystems). In any case, if the organization determines that it is necessaryand feasible to implement a given security strategy, installing equipmentshould not require effort beyond routine procedures for completing internalwork orders and hiring reputable contractors.Determining countermeasures often requires creativity: don't limit yourself to traditional solutions. Q.What if my budget won't allow for hiring full-time security guards?A. Hiring full-time guards is only one of many options for dealing withsecurity monitoring activities. Part-time staff on watch duringparticularly critical periods is another. So are video cameras and the use ofother staff (from managers to receptionists) who are trained to monitorsecurity as a part of their duties. The point is that by brainstorming a rangeof possible countermeasure solutions you can come up with severaleffective ways to monitor your workplace. The key is that the function isbeing performed. How it is done is secondary--and completely up to theorganization and its unique requirements. Guidelines for security policy development can be found in Chapter 3. Policy IssuesPhysical security requires that building site(s) be safeguarded in a way thatminimizes the risk of resource theft and destruction. To accomplishthis, decision-makers must be concerned about building construction, roomassignments, emergency procedures, regulations governing equipmentplacement and use, power supplies, product handling, and relationshipswith outside contractors and agencies.The physical plant must be satisfactorily secured to prevent thosepeople who are not authorized to enter the site and use equipment fromdoing so. A building does not need to feel like a fort to be safe. Well-conceivedplans to secure a building can be initiated without adding undueburden on your staff. After all, if they require access, they will receive it--as long as they were aware of, and abide by, the organization's statedsecurity policies and guidelines (see Chapter 3). The only way to ensurethis is to demand that before any person is given access to your system,they have first signed and returned a valid Security Agreement. Thisnecessary security policy is too important to permit exceptions.As discussed more completely in Chapter 2, a threat is any action, actor, or event that contributes to risk Physical Threats (Examples)Examples of physical threats include:Natural events (e.g., floods, earthquakes, and tornados)Other environmental conditions (e.g., extreme temperatures, high humidity, heavy rains, and lightning)Intentional acts of destruction (e.g., theft, vandalism, and arson)Unintentionally destructive acts (e.g., spilled drinks, overloaded electrical outlets, and bad plumbing) A countermeasure is a strp planned and taken in opposition to another act or potential act. Physical Security CountermeasuresThe following countermeasures address physical security concerns thatcould affect your site(s) and equipment. These strategies arerecommended when risk assessment identifies or confirms the need tocounter potential breaches in the physical security of your system. Countermeasures come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and levelsof complexity. This document endeavors to describe a range ofstrategies that are potentially applicable to life in educationorganizations. In an effort to maintain this focus, thosecountermeasures that are unlikely to be applied in educationorganizations are not included here. If after your risk assessment,for example, your security team determines that your organizationrequires high-end countermeasures like retinal scanners or voiceanalyzers, you will need to refer to other security references andperhaps even need to hire a reliable technical consultant. Create a Secure Environment: Building and Room Construction:17Don't arouse unnecessary interest in your critical facilities: A secureroom should have "low" visibility (e.g., there should not be signsin front of the building and scattered throughout the hallwaysannouncing "expensive equipment and sensitive informationthis way").Select only those countermeasures that meetpercuived needs as indentified during riskassessment (Chapter 2) and supportsecurity policy (Chapter 3). Maximize structural protection: A secure room should have fullheight walls and fireproof ceilings.Minimize external access (doors): A secure room should only haveone or two doors--they should be solid, fireproof, lockable, andobservable by assigned security staff. Doors to the secure roomshould never be propped open.Minimize external access (windows): A secure room should nothave excessively large windows. All windows should have locks.Maintain locking devices responsibly: Locking doors and windowscan be an effective security strategy as long as appropriateauthorities maintain the keys and combinations responsibly. Ifthere is a breach, each compromised lock should be changed.Investigate options other than traditional keyhole locks for securingareas as is reasonable: Based on the findings from your riskassessment (see Chapter 2), consider alternative physical security strategies such as window bars, anti-theft cabling (i.e., an alarm sounds when any piece of equipment is disconnected from the system), magnetic key cards, and motion detectors. Recognize that some countermeasures are ideals and may not be feasible if, for example, your organization is housed in an old building.Be prepared for fire emergencies: In an ideal world, a secure roomshould be protected from fire by an automatic fire-fightingsystem. Note that water can damage electronic equipment, socarbon dioxide systems or halogen agents are recommended. Ifimplemented, staff must be trained to use gas masks and otherprotective equipment. Manual fire fighting equipment (i.e., fireextinguishers) should also be readily available and staff should beproperly trained in their use.Maintain a reasonable climate within the room: A good rule ofthumb is that if people are comfortable, then equipment isusually comfortable--but even if people have gone home for thenight, room temperature and humidity cannot be allowed toreach extremes (i.e., it should be kept between 50 and 80degrees Fahrenheit and 20 and 80 percent humidity). Note thatit's not freezing temperatures that damage disks, but thecondensation that forms when they thaw out.Be particularly careful with non-essential materials in a securecomputer room: Technically, this guideline should read "no eating,drinking, or smoking near computers," but it is quite probablyimpossible to convince staff to implement such a regulation.Other non-essential materials that can cause problems in asecure environment and, therefore, should be eliminated includecurtains, reams of paper, and other flammables. Don't say it if you don't mean it--instituting policies that you don't bother to enforce makes users wonder whether you're serious about other rules as well. Locking critical equipment in secure closet can bean excellent security strategy findings establish that it is warranted. Guard Equipment:Keep critical systems separate from general systems: Prioritizeequipment based on its criticality and its role in processingsensitive information (see Chapter 2). Store it in secured areasbased on those priorities.House computer equipment wisely: Equipment should not be ableto be seen or reached from window and door openings, norshould it be housed near radiators, heating vents, airconditioners, or other duct work. Workstations that do notroutinely display sensitive information should always be stored inopen, visible spaces to prevent covert use.Protect cabling, plugs, and other wires from foot traffic: Trippingover loose wires is dangerous to both personnel and equipment.Keep a record of your equipment: Maintain up-to-date logs ofequipment manufacturers, models, and serial numbers in asecure location. Be sure to include a list of all attachedperipheral equipment. Consider videotaping the equipment(including close-up shots) as well. Such clear evidence ofownership can be helpful when dealing with insurancecompanies.Maintain and repair equipment: Have plans in place foremergency repair of critical equipment. Either have a technicianwho is trained to do repairs on staff or make arrangements withsomeone who has ready access to the site when repair work isneeded. If funds allow, consider setting up maintenancecontracts for your critical equipment. Local computer suppliersoften offer service contracts for equipment they sell, and manyworkstation and mainframe vendors also provide such services.Once you've set up the contract, be sure that contactinformation is kept readily available. Technical supporttelephone numbers, maintenance contract numbers, customeridentification numbers, equipment serial numbers, and mail-ininformation should be posted or kept in a log book near thesystem for easy reference. Remember that computer repairtechnicians may be in a position to access your confidentialinformation, so make sure that they know and follow yourpolicies regarding outside employees and contractors who accessyour system. Who needs a Maintenance Contract? 2b1af7f3a8